Latest News

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  • January 02, 2018 10:10 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)


    Tuesday, January 23, 2018
    5PM PT/7PM CT/8PM ET 

    Registration - Link

    • APAOG Member - $0.00
    • Non-Member – $50.00

    APAOG Members, be sure you are logged in to see the member rate.

    Title: Today’s Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Practical Considerations

    Speaker: Nisha McKenzie PA-C, IF, CSC


    • Equip PAs with guideline and evidence-based knowledge on several forms of birth control methods
    • Review relevant safety and efficacy data on several forms of birth control methods
    • Explore common concerns and priorities related to Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) that apply to women in various life stages

  • December 21, 2017 9:03 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    December 20, 2017, University of Leeds

    Read full article here

    Scientists are using the latest imaging techniques usually used to map the brain to try and understand why some pregnant women miscarry or go into early labour.

    They have developed 3D images of the cervix, the load bearing organ which lies at the base of the womb and stops a developing baby from descending into the birth canal before the due date.

    Around a quarter of miscarriages during the fourth to sixth month of pregnancy (mid-trimester) occur because of weaknesses in the cervix.

    The researchers at the University of Leeds hope by developing a detailed image of its structure, they can develop ways of monitoring women for signs of potential problems before they become pregnant.

    Mr Nigel Simpson, Associate Professor in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, said: "Ultrasound monitoring is used to identify women at risk - where their cervix is unable to support the pregnancy. But little is known about why that problem develops.

    "This research is attempting to answer that question."

    MRI techniques were used to create 3D images of the cervix. This is the first time extremely high resolution imaging has been used to understand the detailed micro-structure of this organ.

    The research is published in the international obstetrics and gynaecology journal, BJOG.

    James Nott, from the Faculty of Medicine and Health and lead author, said: "A lot of our understanding of the biology of the cervix is rooted in research carried out 50 years ago.

    "By applying the imaging techniques that have been used on the brain, we can get a much clearer understanding of the tissue architecture that gives the cervix its unique biomechanical properties."

    The images reveal a fibrous structure running along the upper part of the cervix. The fibres are much more pronounced near to where it joins the womb. The fibres are made of collagen and smooth muscle and form a ring around the upper aspect of the cervical canal.

    During pregnancy, these fibres provide a strong supporting barrier - keeping the foetus and amniotic sac in place and preventing micro-organisms from entering the uterus.

    The images reveal that these support tissues are less prominent further down the cervix as it joins the birth canal.

    During labour, the body releases chemicals which result in the cervix opening and allowing the baby to enter the birth canal.

    But there are medical conditions where earlier in the pregnancy, the cervix fails to support the baby, leading to a miscarriage or premature birth.

    Mr Simpson said: "This study's findings have encouraged us to explore new imaging techniques to check the integrity of these fibres before or during pregnancy in order to identify at-risk mums, intervene earlier, and so prevent late pregnancy loss and pre-term birth."

    The study was funded by Cerebra, the charity for children with brain conditions.

    The scientists used diffusion tensor MRI, which is a technology that can remotely sense different types of tissue based on their water content.

     Explore further: Cervical device may help lower preemie birth risk

    More information: JP Nott et al, Diffusion tensor imaging determines three-dimensional architecture of human cervix: a cross-sectional study, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (2017). DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.15002

    Provided by: University of Leeds  

  • December 18, 2017 9:10 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    Share your original research with the PA community — submit a proposal today for the ePoster Sessions at AAPA 2018, May 19-23, in New Orleans. Open to both PAs and PA student researchers, research must be about the PA profession or PA education, or conducted by PAs and/or PA students. Deadline is Dec. 31

  • December 13, 2017 7:22 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)


    December 12, 2017 The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released today a final recommendation statement on hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women. The Task Force recommends against hormone therapy for preventing chronic conditions in women who have gone through menopause, as the benefits do not outweigh the harms. To view the recommendation and the evidence on which it is based, please go to The final recommendation statement can also be found in the December 12, 2017 online issue of JAMA.



  • December 12, 2017 3:43 PM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    Access ARHP's 50+ Hours of Free, On-Demand, Accredited Activities

    Scrambling for last-minute 2017 CME/CE/CPE credits to fulfill your licensure or certification requirements? ARHP has 50+ hours of online, accredited educational activities, available 24/7.

    Topics of our latest recorded webinars include contraception (including emergency contraception), female sexual health and dysfunction, vulvovaginitis, HPV, and inflammatory bowel disease. And our programs are grant-supported, so are always free for clinicians.



  • December 12, 2017 9:04 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection that causes discharge, odor, and irritation. It can predispose women to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis may require prolonged treatment to return the vaginal flora to a normal predominately lactobacilli-dominated environment. 


  • December 07, 2017 9:49 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)
    • by Kristen Monaco, Staff Writer, MedPage TodayDecember 06, 2017

    Menopause-related vasomotor symptoms (VMS) may heighten diabetes risk, researchers reported.

    VMS, such as hot flashes and night sweats, were tied to an 18% increased risk for type 2 diabetes (95% CI 1.14-1.22), according to Kristen E. Gray, PhD, of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle and colleagues. Independent of obesity status, VMS persisting for a longer duration were tied to a continually increasing risk for diabetes (4% per 5 years, 95% CI 1.03-1.05), they wrote in Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society.

    Diabetes risk also increased with the severity of symptoms:

    • Mild symptoms: hazard ratio 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.17)
    • Moderate: HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.22-1.36)
    • Severe: HR 1.48 (95% CI 1.34-1.62)

    The prospective study, previously at the 2016 American Diabetes Association annual meeting, included 150,007 postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Imitative, conducted at 40 centers across the U.S. All women had data regarding VMS and no history of diabetes at baseline. Menopause-related VMS were self-reported via a questionnaire, while diabetes was defined as the initial report of insulin or oral treatment.

    During an average 13.1-year follow-up, there were 18,316 cases of type 2 diabetes reported among the cohort. Women who did not report experiencing VMS at baseline had a lower incidence of diabetes than women who did (8.4 per 1,000 person-years versus 11.3 per 1,000).

    With regard to specific VMS, night sweats had a slightly stronger association with diabetes risk than hot flashes alone:

    • Night sweats only: HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.13-1.26)
    • Hot flashes only: HR 1.08 (95% CI 1.02-1.15)
    • Both: HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.17-1.27)

    Women who only reported experiencing VMS early on did not have an increased associated risk for type 2 diabetes (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.04). However, those who only reported late-onset symptoms, or who experienced early and late symptoms, did have significantly associated risks (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.18; HR 1.16, 1.11-1.22, respectively).

    "There are several potential explanations for our pattern of findings," the authors noted. "The most plausible and consistent explanation may be through associations with sleep disturbance. VMS overall are associated with objective and subjective sleep disturbance, 28 and individuals with disruptions in both the quantity and quality of sleep have a higher risk of diabetes."

    Gray's group found sleep disturbances were commonly reported among the cohort, with 36% of women having experienced short sleep durations. Similarly, 24% of women were considered to be at high risk of sleep-disordered breathing, while 31% were at high risk of insomnia. Those who experienced more severe VMS, as well as experiencing both hot flashes and night sweats, were more likely to report sleep disturbances.

    Study limitations included the fact that much of the cohort were clinical trial participants, which "were likely healthier than the general population," they stated.

    While the results do not support different clinical care for women who experience VMS, "they suggest that leveraging the immediate repercussions of VMS may be a particularly effective strategy for eliciting behavior change among affected women as compared with counseling about the more distant and abstract future risk of diabetes and CVD," the authors said.

    "Menopause is a perfect time to encourage behavior changes that reduce menopause symptoms, as well as the risk of diabetes and heart disease," noted JoAnn Pinkerton, MD, executive director of the North American Menopause Society, in a press release. "Suggestions include getting regular exercise and adequate sleep, avoiding excess alcohol, stopping smoking, and eating a heart-healthy diet. For symptomatic women, hormone therapy started near menopause improves menopause symptoms and reduces the risk of diabetes."

    Click here for the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists' comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm and guidelines for the treatment of menopause.

    The study was supported by the US Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research & Development Program.

    Gray and co-authors disclosed no relevant relationships with industry.

    • Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

  • December 07, 2017 9:48 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    During menopause a woman’s ovaries stop working—leading to hot flashes, sleep problems, weight gain, and worse, bone deterioration.

    Now scientists are exploring whether transplanting lab-made ovaries might stop those symptoms. In one of the first efforts to explore the potential of such a technique, researchers say they used tissue engineering to construct artificial rat ovaries able to supply female hormones like estrogen and progesterone.

    The work, carried out at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, suggests a potential alternative to the synthetic hormones millions of women take after reaching middle age. A paper describing the findings was published Tuesday in Nature Communications.

    When tested in rats, the pieces of tissue, known as organoids, were better than traditional hormone replacement drugs at improving bone health and preventing weight gain. The treatment was also as good as hormone drugs at maintaining healthy tissue in the uterus.

    Clinical trials of artificial ovaries are not likely to happen soon. For one thing, it is uncertain where the cells needed to build the organoids would come from. Emmanuel Opara, a professor at Wake Forest who led the research, says younger women might need to donate the tissue.

    Women going through menopause, as well as those who have undergone cancer treatment or had their ovaries removed for medical purposes, lose the ability to produce important hormones, including estrogen and progesterone. Lower levels of these hormones can affect a number of different body functions.

    To counteract unpleasant symptoms, many women turn to combinations of hormone replacement medications—synthetic estrogen and progestin. But hormone replacement carries an increased risk of heart disease and breast cancer, so it’s not recommended for long-term use. Opara thinks artificial ovaries could be safer and more effective.

    To engineer the organoids, Opara and his colleagues combined two cell types—granulosa and theca cells. They collected samples of these cells from female rats that had their ovaries removed and grew them in the lab so they eventually formed three-dimensional tissue.  

    Within a week of implantation, the artificial ovaries started secreting estrogen, progesterone, and two other natural hormones not found in current hormone replacement drugs.  

    Cynthia Stuenkel, a clinical professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego, and a spokeswoman for the Endocrine Society, says the report  is “fascinating” but sees a downside if such treatments really reverse menopause. She wonders if the hormones would be enough to bring back a woman’s period and the symptoms that often come along with it.



  • December 07, 2017 9:42 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    2017 APAOG All-Member Webinar

    In an all-member webinar, APAOG will:

    • Introduce new and returning APAOG board members
    • Review APAOG 2017 membership survey results
    • Review and share 2017 APAOG organization success stories
    • Hear about the 2018 APAOG Workplan
    • Gather input for 2018 plans
    >>View recording here

  • December 04, 2017 8:09 AM | Ashley Monson (Administrator)

    By Joshua Miller GLOBE STAFF  NOVEMBER 20, 2017

    Governor Charlie Baker signed into law Monday a bill that will mandate many Massachusetts women receive free access to contraceptives — a direct response to President Trump’s efforts to roll back coverage.

    The bill, which the state House and Senate passed overwhelmingly, will require health insurance in Massachusetts to cover most contraceptive drugs, devices, and products without a copay — that is, at no direct cost to the women getting them.

    “This is a great day in the Commonwealth of Mass.,” Baker said after signing the bill into law, surrounded by top Democratic leaders in the state including Attorney General Maura T. Healey, Senate President Stanley C. Rosenberg, and House Speaker Robert A. DeLeo.

    The mandate will cover a 12-month supply of prescription contraception after a 3-month trial, emergency contraception, and voluntary female sterilization procedures. It will not cover condoms.

    The legal language includes an exemption for insurance policies purchased by a church or church-controlled organization.

    The legislation’s passage followed an executive order by President Trump that tweaks the Obamacare rules. It allows more employers to opt out of providing coverage for birth control to women by claiming religious or moral objections.

    Under Obamacare, also known as the Affordable Care Act, many women no longer pay for contraceptives. The Massachusetts law, which will go into effect in six months, goes further than the national law in some respects. For example, it mandates coverage of over-the-counter emergency contraception at pharmacies without a copayment. The federal mandate only required copay-free emergency contraception with a prescription.

    “This is about the fact that every woman should have access to affordable and reliable basic health preventative services, including birth control. And this bill takes an important step toward insuring that,” Healey said at the signing ceremony at the State House.

    The bill has garnered praise from groups such as the advocacy arm of the state’s Planned Parenthood organization. But it has drawn opprobrium from a Catholic group, the Catholic Action League of Massachusetts.

    “This coercive and gratuitous measure is about ideology, not health care,” the league’s executive director, C. J. Doyle, said in an email.

    It means that those have moral objections to contraceptives and sterilization procedures “will be compelled, in violation of their consciences, to subsidize, at an expanded level, procedures and practices which they find abhorrent,” Doyle said.

    The law is supported by insurance providers in the state. The Massachusetts Association of Health Plans has called it “a sensible bill.”

    An analysis of the legislation released by the state’s Center for Health Information and Analysis found the law would likely increase premiums by a very small amount, about four-one-hundredths of one percent over the next five years.

    Almost all Massachusetts residents are covered by health insurance.

    But the new law will not apply to all insurance coverage in the state. It covers traditional health plans offered by employers who pay a premium to an insurance carrier, and the state Group Insurance Commission, an agency that administers health benefits to public employees and their families. It also covers MassHealth, the state’s Medicaid program for the poor and disabled.

    But the new law will not apply to self-insured employers, usually larger companies, that assume the financial risk of providing health care benefits to their employees. Many in Massachusetts are insured that way, limiting the scope of the law.

    Still, said Dr. Jennifer Childs-Roshak, who leads the Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts, she anticipates self-insured employers to follow the same policies, which she said are broadly supported by Massachusetts residents.

    Not covering contraceptives, “I would expect, in the state of Massachusetts, it would be not a great business move to choose to do that,” Childs-Roshak told the Globe.

    Baker — a Republican who supports abortion rights, gay marriage, and signed a law to allow people to use the restrooms and locker rooms that match their gender identity — is expected to run for re-election next year.

    Material from the he Associated Press was used in this report. Joshua Miller can be reached at

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